S^5Mars: Self-Supervised and Semi-Supervised Learning for Mars Segmentation

by   Jiahang Zhang, et al.

Deep learning has become a powerful tool for Mars exploration. Mars terrain segmentation is an important Martian vision task, which is the base of rover autonomous planning and safe driving. However, existing deep-learning-based terrain segmentation methods face two problems: one is the lack of sufficient detailed and high-confidence annotations, and the other is the over-reliance of models on annotated training data. In this paper, we address these two problems from the perspective of joint data and method design. We first present a new Mars terrain segmentation dataset which contains 6K high-resolution images and is sparsely annotated based on confidence, ensuring the high quality of labels. Then to learn from this sparse data, we propose a representation-learning-based framework for Mars terrain segmentation, including a self-supervised learning stage (for pre-training) and a semi-supervised learning stage (for fine-tuning). Specifically, for self-supervised learning, we design a multi-task mechanism based on the masked image modeling (MIM) concept to emphasize the texture information of images. For semi-supervised learning, since our dataset is sparsely annotated, we encourage the model to excavate the information of unlabeled area in each image by generating and utilizing pseudo-labels online. We name our dataset and method Self-Supervised and Semi-Supervised Segmentation for Mars (S^5Mars). Experimental results show that our method can outperform state-of-the-art approaches and improve terrain segmentation performance by a large margin.


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