Transfer Learning versus Multi-agent Learning regarding Distributed Decision-Making in Highway Traffic

by   Mark Schutera, et al.

Transportation and traffic are currently undergoing a rapid increase in terms of both scale and complexity. At the same time, an increasing share of traffic participants are being transformed into agents driven or supported by artificial intelligence resulting in mixed-intelligence traffic. This work explores the implications of distributed decision-making in mixed-intelligence traffic. The investigations are carried out on the basis of an online-simulated highway scenario, namely the MIT DeepTraffic simulation. In the first step traffic agents are trained by means of a deep reinforcement learning approach, being deployed inside an elitist evolutionary algorithm for hyperparameter search. The resulting architectures and training parameters are then utilized in order to either train a single autonomous traffic agent and transfer the learned weights onto a multi-agent scenario or else to conduct multi-agent learning directly. Both learning strategies are evaluated on different ratios of mixed-intelligence traffic. The strategies are assessed according to the average speed of all agents driven by artificial intelligence. Traffic patterns that provoke a reduction in traffic flow are analyzed with respect to the different strategies.


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