Virtual to Real adaptation of Pedestrian Detectors for Smart Cities

by   Luca Ciampi, et al.

Pedestrian detection through computer vision is a building block for a multitude of applications in the context of smart cities, such as surveillance of sensitive areas, personal safety, monitoring, and control of pedestrian flow, to mention only a few. Recently, there was an increasing interest in deep learning architectures for performing such a task. One of the critical objectives of these algorithms is to generalize the knowledge gained during the training phase to new scenarios having various characteristics, and a suitably labeled dataset is fundamental to achieve this goal. The main problem is that manually annotating a dataset usually requires a lot of human effort, and it is a time-consuming operation. For this reason, in this work, we introduced ViPeD - Virtual Pedestrian Dataset, a new synthetically generated set of images collected from a realistic 3D video game where the labels can be automatically generated exploiting 2D pedestrian positions extracted from the graphics engine. We used this new synthetic dataset training a state-of-the-art computationally-efficient Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) that is ready to be installed in smart low-power devices, like smart cameras. We addressed the problem of the domain-adaptation from the virtual world to the real one by fine-tuning the CNN using the synthetic data and also exploiting a mixed-batch supervised training approach. Extensive experimentation carried out on different real-world datasets shows very competitive results compared to other methods presented in the literature in which the algorithms are trained using real-world data.


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