XCAT-GAN for Synthesizing 3D Consistent Labeled Cardiac MR Images on Anatomically Variable XCAT Phantoms

by   Sina Amirrajab, et al.

Generative adversarial networks (GANs) have provided promising data enrichment solutions by synthesizing high-fidelity images. However, generating large sets of labeled images with new anatomical variations remains unexplored. We propose a novel method for synthesizing cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) images on a population of virtual subjects with a large anatomical variation, introduced using the 4D eXtended Cardiac and Torso (XCAT) computerized human phantom. We investigate two conditional image synthesis approaches grounded on a semantically-consistent mask-guided image generation technique: 4-class and 8-class XCAT-GANs. The 4-class technique relies on only the annotations of the heart; while the 8-class technique employs a predicted multi-tissue label map of the heart-surrounding organs and provides better guidance for our conditional image synthesis. For both techniques, we train our conditional XCAT-GAN with real images paired with corresponding labels and subsequently at the inference time, we substitute the labels with the XCAT derived ones. Therefore, the trained network accurately transfers the tissue-specific textures to the new label maps. By creating 33 virtual subjects of synthetic CMR images at the end-diastolic and end-systolic phases, we evaluate the usefulness of such data in the downstream cardiac cavity segmentation task under different augmentation strategies. Results demonstrate that even with only 20 performance is retained with the addition of synthetic CMR images. Moreover, the improvement in utilizing synthetic images for augmenting the real data is evident through the reduction of Hausdorff distance up to 28 in the Dice score up to 5 in all dimensions.


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