Proof of Travel for Trust-Based Data Validation in V2I Communication Part I: Methodology

by   Dajiang Suo, et al.

Previous work on misbehavior detection and trust management for Vehicle-to-Everything (V2X) communication can identify falsified and malicious messages, enabling witness vehicles to report observations about high-criticality traffic events. However, there may not exist enough "benign" vehicles with V2X connectivity or vehicle owners who are willing to opt-in in the early stages of connected-vehicle deployment. In this paper, we propose a security protocol for the communication between vehicles and infrastructure, titled Proof-of-Travel (POT), to answer the research question: How can we transform the power of cryptography techniques embedded within the protocol into social and economic mechanisms to simultaneously incentivize Vehicle-to-Infrastructure (V2I) data sharing activities and validate the data? The key idea is to determine the reputation of and the contribution made by a vehicle based on its distance traveled and the information it shared through V2I channels. In particular, the total vehicle miles traveled for a vehicle must be testified by digital signatures signed by each infrastructure component along the path of its movement. While building a chain of proofs of spatial movement creates burdens for malicious vehicles, acquiring proofs does not result in extra cost for normal vehicles, which naturally want to move from the origin to the destination. The proof of travel for a vehicle can then be used to determine the contribution and reward by its altruistic behaviors. We propose short-term and long-term incentive designs based on the POT protocol and evaluate their security and performance through theoretical analysis and simulations.


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